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Texte
 


?Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART?, Symphonie No 2 en si bémol majeur, KV 17 (Anh. 223a, Anh. C 11.02), Ensemble Orchestral de l'Oiseau-Lyre, Louis de FROMENT, OL 50118

Dans la première version du répertoire de Köchel cette symphonie a été attribuée à Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart et reçut le numéro 2. Il a été toutefois rapidement constaté qu'elle n'est pas de Mozart, on l'a attribuée à son père Léopold, mais ceci n'est pas non plus certain.

Dans la 3e édition du répertoire de Köchel cette symphonie est cataloguée comme "Anhang 223a", dans la 6e édition comme "Anhang C 11.02", elle a été toutefois conservée dans la liste des symphonies de Mozart.

Et comme l'identité du compositeur n'est pas établie avec certitude, je la laisse dans la rubrique des oeuvres de Mozart. La partition est en outre restée en partie inachevée. Par exemple, dans le Menuetto I, seules les parties des premiers violons et des violoncelles / contrebasses sont complétées; les parties des seconds violons et des altos dans ce mouvement sont des ajouts de l'éditeur.

Louis de FROMENT dirige ici un orchestre nommé "ENSEMBLE ORCHESTRAL DE L'OISEAU-LYRE". Cet enregistrement paraît sur le petit disque 33 tours 17cm L'Oiselet LD 19 (voir les photos au bas de cette page) et sur le 33 tours OL 50118, sur ce dernier avec la symphonie No 3 complétant la première face, et les symphonies No 4, 5 et 7 sur sa deuxième face, mentionnés pour la première fois dans le 3e supplément du WERM (janvier 1953-décembre 1955), donc parus au plus tard en 1955. Le disque est présenté dans la revue Gramophone de mai 1956 en page 457.

C'était l'époque des éditions soignées! Le 33 tours OL 50118 est dans une pochette cartonnée (photo ci-dessus), et celle-ci dans un petit coffret (photo à droite)! C'est la première fois que je vois ce genre d'emballage pour un seul disque!

Ce disque OL 50118 est le 2e disque de ce qui aurait du être une série de trois disques. Le 3e disque - OL 50119 - contient les symphonies 8, 9, 10 et 11, avec les mêmes interprètes, aussi dans un petit coffret.

Le 1er disque n'est probablement jamais paru, car je n'en retrouve nulle part de traces: il aurait probablement contenu les symphonies No 1 et 6. Peut-être qu'il n'a pas été enregistré parce que les Éditions de l'Oiseau-Lyre avaient publié un peu auparavant - en 1952 ou 1953 - ces deux symphonies avec l'
Orchestre Lamoureux dirigé par Pierre Colombo (les disques LD 2 et LD 3, et le disque DL 53008)? Si quelqu'un a plus d'informations -> Vos remarques!

Pour cette symphonie No 2, quelques extraits du texte publié au verso de la pochette du disque (l'auteur du texte n'est pas indiqué):

"[...] When the youthful Mozart first began to compose symphonies, the symphonic form itself had been steadily evolving for some sixty years, ever since Alessandro Scarlatti had written his first three-movement 'sinfonia avanti l'opera' in the late seventeenth century. Throughout the first half of the next century there was an immense outpouring of Italian symphonies for operatic and concert use; tuneful, gay, brilliant, light-hearted, sometimes even empty-headed. From old Scarlatti and the fiery Vivaldi, through Galuppi, Sammartini and Jommelli to the latest idol Piccini, Italian composers had poured forth thousands of 'sinfonie' of every kind, good, bad and indifferent. Conti had taken the form northwards to Vienna, to serve as an exemplar for Wagenseil and Monn; Hasse popularised it in Dresden, whence it passed to Berlin and the North German circle of the Grauns and C.P.E. Bach. At Mannheim, Czechs and Germans improved on their Italian models, both in form and orchestration, and the fiery genius of Johann Stauritz initiated the new revolution in orchestral technique. Paris and London were influenced in their turn; Paris by the Mannheimers, London directly by the Italians or by Italianate immigrants.

It was in the English capital, in 1764, and at the age of eight, that little Mozart composed his First Symphony. He had several models at the back of his youthful mind. First of all, his father; Leopold was a South German and his music was somewhat naïve and provincial, and even a little old-fashioned by cosmopolitan standards, but he was his son's principal teacher, and we must not underrate his influence on the boy. Then there were more recent influences; in Paris Wolfgang had heard the music of Schobert, a German composer who wrote fashionable keyboard music in the Mannheim Idiom, to which the boy was somewhat attracted. But it was in London itself that he met his first really dominating influences in the perlons of two Germans, C.F. Abel (1723-1787) and his friend and partner Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782), the youngest son of J.S. Bach. Abel's orchestral style was North German, but strongly influenced by the Italianate music he had played under Hasse at Dresden, before he came to London in 1759. J.C. Bach's music was even more Italianate, for he had actually lived in Italy for some years before he too came to London in 1762. Mozart fell completely under the spell of this "London Bach", for Johann Christian was a man and composer of great charm, and his very personal combination of Italian melodic grace, easy formal mastery and effective, lucid orchestration soon became Mozart's symphonic ideal. Hence the latter's own earliest symphonies were composed very much under the London Bach's influence, were Italianate in style, mostly in three movements, without the minuet and trio, and generally composed for 2 oboes, 2 horns and strings.

Of these three movements, the first was always the most important in the Italian symphonic scheme. It could be written either in true sonata-form, complete with exposition, development and recapitulation, or in one of the older binary-forms, in which the development and recapitulation were often telescoped together. The slow movement was usually short, often in binary-form, either for strings alone, or with flutes replacing the oboes. The finale was usually of a dance-like character, often in the old French rondeau form. Such was the general scheme of the London symphonists, and such was the pattern which Mozart followed in his earliest symphonies. It served equally for opera-house or concert-room, and so we shall find Mozart writing symphonic works for either purpose, and sometimes even interchanging them (as, for example, in the case of K.45, which he composed for the concert-room, but later used as an opera overture). The pre-classical symphony was born in the opera-house, and was not at all ill at ease in returning thither.

A word of explanation is necessary wich regard to the present series of recordings. Most music-loyers think of Mozart's symphonic output as beginning wich his symphony No. 1 and ending wich No. 41, the Jupiter (K.551), but in actual fact the usual list of 41 symphonies contains two known spuriosities (Nos. 3 and 37) as well as one or two others which are extremely dubious (e.g., K.17) and omits a large number of genuine works, some of which have been lost, some never printed and others which were printed only in the operatic or Anhang volumes of the older edition of Mozart's Complete Works. This curions state of affairs will no doubt be rectified to some extent when the composer's symphonic works are reprinted in the new edition which is now appearing in Germany. But the present set of discs follows the usual list of Mozart's Symphonies, from No. 1 onwards; comment will be made at suitable places regarding any spurious or doubtful works. One advantage of this method is that it gives us the opportunity of hearing a symphony by one of Mozart's London friends, Abel, which the boy copied out, presumably as an exercise in symphonic style (See Symphony No. 3 in E flat, K.18).

SYMPHONY No. 2 IN B FLAT MAJOR (K.17)
This so-called Second Symphony is nowadays regarded as something of a spuriosity, although if so, its real composer is yet to be revealed. The first movement is certainly very un-Mozartian, and has none of the smooth-flowing grace of Mozart's London models, Abel and J.C. Bach. The slow
movement is more suavely melodious, but the minuet and trio suggest Austria rather than England. The finale is vigorous and somewhat bucolic, in a style which recalls that of papa Leopold, who has more than once been suggested as the composer of this puzzling symphony. Oddly enough the score was left unfinished, and muck of the wind scoring has had to be reconstructed.
[...]"

Voici donc...

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphonie Nr. 2 in B-Dur, KV 17 (Anh. 223a, Anh. C 11.02), Ensemble Orchestral de l'Oiseau-Lyre, Louis de Froment, OL 50118 (1. Allegro 03:54, 2. (Andante) 04:13, 3. Menuetto 1 & 2 03:29, 4. Presto 03:57)

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OL 50118 TT-343-1B -> WAV -> léger à moyen DeClick avec ClickRepair, des réparations manuelles ->
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Ci-dessous les photos du ravissant petit disque L'Oiselet LD 19 que j'ai pu trouver sur la toile:





 
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